Category Definitions

Category Definitions

The application and web categories shown in the UI are explained below.

CategoryDescriptionSample URLs
AbortionWeb pages that discuss abortion from a historical, medical, legal, or other not overtly biased point of view. Examples are abortion pill, pregnancy termination, and fetal,,,
Adult Content – OtherSites with adult content are categorized under this category. Examples are sex, nudity, gambling, and,, frankenladies. de
Adult Content – PornographyPornography sites are the ones which allow the portrayal of sexual subject matter,,
Advocacy Groups & Trade AssociationsSites that provide information on Industry trade groups, lobbyists, unions, special interest groups and professional,,
AggressiveSites that Includes militancy, torture, crime-scene photos, and descriptions or pictures of a violent, bloody, or gory nature. Also includes sites that promote violence and sedition. Examples are mutilation, crime scene, and,, alombredelespoir. org
AlcoholWeb pages that show alcoholic drinks and beers. Examples are whiskey, vodka, and,,
App Admin ConsoleApp Admin Console is a collection of apps for which the Netskope NACE can detect administrative actions performed by the app administrator.NULL
Application SuiteApplication Suite indicates that applications listed under this category have multiple products from their respective companies in various other,,
ArtsSites that contain creative art judged solely for its intellectual or aesthetic,,
Auctions & MarketplacesSites that discuss on Person to person selling or trading of goods and services through classified, online,,
AutomotiveSites that provide information about the automotive industry that connects vehicle shoppers with,,
BusinessBusiness sites that contain information on trade, purchase and sale of products or,,
Business Intelligence and Data AnalyticsBusiness intelligence (BI) sites transform raw data into meaningful and useful information for business analysis purposes. BI technologies are capable of handling large amounts of unstructured data to help identify, develop, and create new strategic business,, datasciencecentral. com
Business Process ManagementBusiness process management (BPM) sites focus on improving corporate performance by managing and optimizing a company business,,
Chat, IM & other communicationWeb pages with real-time chat rooms and messaging allowing strangers and friends to chat in groups both in public and private chats. Includes Internet Relay Chat (IRC). Examples are chat room, group chat, irc,,
Child AbuseWeb pages that show the physical or sexual abuse of children. Examples are pedophilia and child abuse.NULL
Cloud BackupCloud backup applications address both enterprise and consumer backup needs for storing peripheral and server data in the cloud to prevent data loss in case of disk failures, data corruption or,,
Cloud StorageCloud storage services may be accessed through a co-located cloud compute service, a web service application programming interface(API) or by applications that utilize the API, such as cloud desktop storage, a cloud storage gateway or Web-based content management,,
CollaborationSites where two or more organizations work together to realize shared goals. For example, an endeavour that is creative in nature by sharing knowledge, learning, and building,,
ConsumerConsumer cloud sites incorporate on-premise storage, computing, and device hardware. All of these can now be delivered from remote elastic storage and devices, such as smartphones, notebooks, and,,
Content ManagementContent management (CM) sites support the collection, managing, and publishing of information in any form or medium. Digital content may take the form of text (such as electronic documents), multimedia files (such as audio or video files), or any other file,,
Content ServerSites that provide content servers and content delivery networks. Examples are web application acceleration, and media,,
Criminal ActivitiesSites that provide information on how to perpetrate illegal activities such as burglary, murder, bomb-making, lock picking, etc. Includes also information on how to perpetrate non-online scams and fraud and how to fake drug tests. Photos of illegal activities such as necrophilia may also have this category in addition to any other applicable categories such as Pornography. Examples are theft, zoophilia, and,
Customer Relationship ManagementCustomer relationship management (CRM) sites provide a system for managing a companys interactions with current and future customers. It often involves sales, marketing, customer service, and technical,,
DatingSites related to marriage (not weddings), online dating, matchmaking, relationship advice, and personal ads. Examples are dating advice, and blind,,
Development ToolsSoftware development sites provide code repositories, review boards, branch management functions, bug tracking, flowcharts, and UI, com,
DrugsPages that in any way endorse or glorify commonly illegal drugs, the misuse of prescription drugs, the misuse of inhalants, or any positive references to the culture of drug use whether specific drugs are mentioned or not. Includes sites giving non-clinical descriptions or stories about being high as well as blogs and other posts about getting high. crack, heroine, and,, buy-magic-
Dynamic DNS DomainDynamic DNS Domain sites provide a method of automatically updating a name server in the Domain Name System (DNS), often in real-time, with the active DDNS configuration of its configured host names, addresses, or other information.NULL
E-Commerce ToolsElectronic commerce sites, commonly known as E-commerce or eCommerce, provide trading products or services using computer networks, such as the Internet. Includes mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection,,
EducationEducation sites provide information on teaching, training,, or research, and provides guidance on convenient and portable learning,,
Enterprise Resource PlanningEnterprise resource planning (ERP) sites provide business management software, usually a suite of integrated applications, that collect, store, manage and interpret data from many business activities, including product planning, cost, manufacturing or service delivery, marketing and sales, Inventory management, shipping, and,,
EntertainmentSites that provide electronics for entertainment such as television, CD players, and DVD,, cinemablend. com
Family & ParentingSites that teach parents how to deal with their kids. Examples are parenting advice and raising,,
FashionSites that discuss additional fashion elements, such as fashion models, agencies and others. Examples are modeling agency, and fashion,,
File ConverterSites that allows converting a document from one file type to,,onlineconvertfree. com
File RepositoriesSites with collections of downloadable software, downloadable applications etc. Also includes repositories of screen savers, wallpapers, web templates, ringtones, and any site with a collection of files. Excludes downloads of themes which fall to Hobbies-Themes. Can be paired with Piracy & Copyright if it involves non-licensed downloads. Examples are web templates, file collection, and file,, softonic. com
File/Software Download SitesSites that host software on their own servers, so that its available for download 24/7.NULL
Finance/AccountingAccounting sites include financial accounting, management accounting, auditing, and tax,,
Financial Aid & ScholarshipsSites that assist debit loans, credit loans in case of job loss or unemployment. This category also includes sites that show relevant information on scholarships or grants for the jobless, laid-off workers or low-income employees, which can either be a partial or a full,,
Financial NewsSites with news and articles on the aspects of finance. Examples are financial news, finance news,,
Food & DrinkSites that contain food and drink specific supply chain information or preparation,,
ForumsSites dedicated to forums, newsgroups, email archives, bulletin boards, and other community-driven,,
GamblingSites with games that involve winning or losing of money based on strategy and chance. Includes information, tips, strategies, and rules for gambling games. Examples are bookie, betting, and,,
GamesSite with non-gambling games and sports. Examples are Board Games, GamesRoleplaying, GamesVideo and Computer,,
GeneralGeneral is a placeholder for Netskope internal functions to enable the Netskope Universal Connector. Applications are not placed in this category.NULL
Generative AISites that use machine learning techniques to generate new data from existing data sets, including text, images, and,,
Government & LegalSites for legal entities made by the government to manage commercial activities on its behalf. These include enterprises or corporations owned by the government, but run by private individuals. This also includes sites that tackle issues and laws on legal,,
Health & NutritionSites that discuss information, tips, guide and others related to health, wellness, eating healthy, and diet,,
Help Desk ManagementSites that provide help desk support to their customers through various channels, such as toll-free numbers, websites, instant messaging, or email. There are also in-house help desks designed to provide assistance to,,
Hobbies & InterestsSites that contain on online directory of activities to do in our free time, and provides information about how to find and start a new,,
Home & GardenSites that provide information on the latest interior design ideas, beautiful lifestyle inspiration, and garden,,
HRHuman resource management (HRM, or simply HR) sites designed to maximize employee performance in service of their employers strategic,,
IaaS/PaaSApplication hosting providers, platform-as-a-service, virtual machine and bare metal services fall under this,, cloud.
Identity and Access ManagementIdentity Access Management applications provide features such as single sign-on (SSO), password management, multi-factor authentication, etc. They enable enterprises to manage a unified list of users across multiple,,
InsuranceSites that offers any type of insurance, insurance company, or government insurance program from medicare to car insurance to life insurance. Examples are accident insurance, travel insurance, self insurance,,,
Internet TelephonySites that allow users to make calls via the web or to download software that allows users to make calls over the Internet. Also called Internet Telephony and Voice Over,,
Investors & PatentsSites that include information on investment business that creates, incubates, and commercializes inventions. Examples are kick-starting, crowdfunding, patents on inventions, patent, patent registration, and patented,,
IT Service/Application ManagementSites that provide IT service management and application management, and includes IT operations, app deployment, license management, app management, app maintenance and upgrading and app scenario,, logicmonitor. com
Job Search/CareersJob posting pages on company sites, job search sites, interview tips, job-related classifieds, temp work, contract work asked or offered, etc.

Also includes sites that show information, tips, or guide on career advice.,,
KidsSites for kids that provides online teaching games, printables, videos,,,
Knowledge ManagementKnowledge management (KM) sites include capturing, developing, sharing, and effectively using organizational,,
LifestyleSites with advertizing or products designed to appeal to a consumer by association with a desirable,, kak-bog. ru
Login ScreensSites used to login to a wide variety of services where the actual service is not known, but could be any of several categories (like Yahoo and Google login pages),,
LogisticsLogistics sites provide information about transferring products from producer to consumer, including storage, transport, transshipment, warehousing, material handling and packaging with associated exchange of,,
MarijuanaSites that promote or sell marijuana products. Cannot be combined with drugs as it is legal in many,,
MarketingSites that target markets through market analysis and market segmentation, as well as understanding consumer behavior and providing superior customer,,
MilitarySites sponsored by or devoted to the armed forces. Includes Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force and Coast Guard,,
MiscellaneousSites that do not fit in any other,
Newly Observed Domain (NOD)Domains observed as active in the last 30 days. Similar to NRDs, NODs might not necessarily be registered in last 30 days. Threat actors might register a domain and leave it dormant for a period of time to avoid NRD classification. Later, they can use the domain for malicious activities, such as malware hosting and phishing.NULL
Newly Registered Domain (NRD)Domains registered for the first time or changed ownership in the last 30 days. Threat investigators can use the NRD’s feed to discover malicious domains since threat actors like to use newly registered URLs for malevolent activities, such as malware hosting and phishing campaigns.NULL
News & MediaOnline (or offline) news sites covering news and events. Also includes collection of written articles that are printed in ink or distributed online, like,,,
No ContentSites that don’t have any content on the entire site is categorized as No Content.NULL
NursingNursing sites that have Job vacancies, job descriptions, and other related information significant to Nursing. Examples are nursing jobs, nursing hirings,,
Online AdsOnline ad site provide online marketing, Internet advertising, digital advertising or web advertising. Examples are online advertising, pay per click (ppc), cost per click (cpc),, phoenixads. net
Parked DomainsParked Domain is the registration of an Internet domain name without that domain being associated with any services, such as e-mail or a website. This may have been done to reserve the domain name for future development, and to protect against the possibility of cybersquatting. Examples are parked domain and for sale call domain owner.NULL
Pay To SurfSites that offer cash to users who install their software ads and track browsing habits, effectively allowing users to be paid to surf the,,
Peer-to-Peer (P2P)Sites that provide peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing software. Note that this does not apply to online repositories of files for download over P2P, but only to the P2P software itself, and any company that provides that software. Examples are emule fileswire, file sharing software, and,,
Personal Sites & BlogsBlog sites are a platform for individuals to share news, opinions, and information about themselves in a date-stamped web log. Personal pages about an individual or that individuals family (also written in the first-person),,
PetsSites that provide information and articles on domestic animals. Examples are cats, dogs, and veterinary,,
Philanthropic OrganizationsCharities and other non-profit philanthropic organizations and foundations dedicated to altruistic activities intended to increase the quality of life for groups or individuals. Also includes web sites that rate and review charities or act as conduits for online donations to selected charities. Examples are charitable giving, fund raisers, and disaster,,
Photo SharingSites that host digital photographs and allow users to upload, search, and exchange photos and images online. Also includes galleries and albums of photos hosted on businesses or personal websites. Also includes online photo printing where photographs may be uploaded and ordered as prints. Examples are photo albums, photo gallery, and photo,,
Piracy & Copyright TheftSites that provide access to illegally obtained files, such as pirated software (like warez), pirated movies, pirated music, etc. Also includes information or software available specifically for the purpose of using or stealing protected copyrighted materials without paying for them, for example, lists of software serial numbers, cracks,rippers etc. This category is typically used in conjunction with another category such as File Repositories. Examples are DVDRIP, DVDZ, and illegal,,
Private IP addressPrivate IP addresses are those reserved for use internally in corporations or homes. Also includes link-local, self-assigned, Zero-configuration addresses Web Analysts should not use this category. Examples are self-assigned IP, and private IP. – (, – (, – (, – (

Professional NetworkingSocial networking sites intended for professionals and business relationship building. These sites are generally more accepted in the workplace than standard social networking websites. Examples are professional networking, and professional networking,,
Real EstateSites that provide information about buying and selling of homes and private estates. Also includes the sites that provide information about renting, leasing, buying, and selling of land and,,
RedirectSites that redirect to other pages or sites is in this Redirect,,
ReligionInformation sites and articles on religions from around the world, including their beliefs, practices, rituals, creeds, ethics and,,
Remote AccessSites that provide remote access to private computers or networks, internal network file shares, and internal web applications. Examples are VPN, SSL,,,
ScienceSites that discuss the study and information in any branch of science. Example Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and,,
Search EnginesSites used to search the Internet and find other web pages. Excludes Image Search and Engines under Shopping group. But includes white pages, yellow pages, and business search directories whether global or local. Examples are business listings, find people, and people,,
SecuritySites that protect data, such as a database, from destructive forces and the unwanted actions of unauthorized users, and defends information from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, inspection, recording, or,,
Security RiskSites that are pervasive and can pose a direct threat to business availability. A risk management site is essential for managing vulnerabilities and other risks.NULL
Security Risk – Ad FraudSites that are being used to commit fraudulent online display advertising transactions using different ad impression boosting techniques, including but not limited to ads stacking, iframe stuffing, and hidden ads. Sites that have high non-human web traffic and with rapid, large, and unexplained changes in traffic.NULL
Security Risk – AttackSites that attempt to gain unauthorized access to information resources or services or cause harm or damage to information systems.NULL
Security Risk – BotnetsSites or compromised web servers running software that is used by hackers to send spam, phishing attacks, and denial of service attacks.NULL
Security Risk – Command and Control serverInternet servers and compromised command and control (C2 or C&C) servers and centers used to send commands to infected machines called bots. And sites that are a security risk because call-home malware is detected.NULL
Security Risk – Compromised/malicious sitesSites that appear to be legitimate, but house malicious code or link to malicious websites hosting malware. These sites have been compromised by someone other than the site owner.NULL
Security Risk – Cryptocurrency MiningSites that use cryptocurrency mining technology without user permission. This is considered a malicious category.NULL
Security Risk – DGADomains that are generated algorithmically using a domain generation algorithm (DGA). These domains are used by DGA-based malware as their C2 channel, and they aim to hide the location of the active C2 server.NULL
Security Risk – HackingSites with information or tools specifically intended to assist in online crime, such as the unauthorized access to computers, but also pages with tools and information that enables fraud and other online crime.NULL
Security Risk – Malware Distribution PointSites that host viruses, exploits, and other malware are considered Malware Distribution Points. Web analysts might use this category if their antivirus program triggers on a particular website. Other categories should also be added if applicable.NULL
Security Risk – MiscellaneousSites with security risk indicators that aren’t mapped to any of the other listed security risk types (e.g., high risk, medium risk, and possible risk).NULL
Security Risk – Phishing/FraudSites that impersonate other web pages, usually with the intent of stealing passwords, credit card numbers, or other information. Also includes websites that are part of scams such as a 419 scam where a person is convinced to hand over money with the expectation of a big payback that never comes (e.g., con, hoax, and scam).NULL
Security Risk – Spam sitesURLs that frequently occur in spam messages.NULL
Security Risk – Spyware & Questionable SoftwareSites that report information back to a central server, such as spyware or keystroke loggers. It also includes software that may have legitimate purposes, but some people may object to having on their system.NULL
Shareware/FreewareSites that offer licensed downloads on software for evaluation, after which a fee will be requested for continued use. Also includes companiy sites offering free use of their software for life. Examples are free software downloads, trial wires, free trial software, and,, downloadsource. es
ShoppingSites that welcome to purchase goods, services, items and others being sold online. Examples are online store, order online, and,,
SocialSocial sites, including communication tools and interactive tools, often based on the Internet. Sllow users to come together online around shared interests, hobbies or causes. For example, some sites provide meeting organization facilities for people who practice the same,,
Social & Affiliation OrganizationsSites for clubs, social organizations, and groups that form around common interests where the primary purpose is to meet for social purposes or to meet people with common interests. Clubs may be devoted to social activities, hobbies, religion, politics, etc. Excludes sports clubs, teams, and organizations. Examples are book club, scouts, and,,
SportsWeb pages that provide information on news, events, schedules, rankings, and other aspects of,,
Streaming & Downloadable AudioSites with repositories of music that provide streaming music, or other audio files that might pose a bandwidth risk to companies. Examples are internet radio, mp3 downloads, and,,
Streaming & Downloadable VideoSites with repositories of videos or that provide in-browser streaming videos that may pose a bandwidth risk to companies. Examples are movie downloads and streaming,,
Survey SolutionsSites for survey methodology studies, like the sampling of individual units from a population and the associated survey data collection techniques, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to,, jotform. com
TechnologySites related to technology. Examples are design web templates, robotics, cloud computing software, and,,
Telecom and Call CenterTelecom applications use the VoIP protocol to enable telephone connectivity in inter-office and intra-office environments. Vendors create virtual PBX in their data centers to handle multiple customers. Call Center applications provide enterprises with the features and tools to automate the process of receiving and responding to customer phone calls. Features include call tracking, monitoring, multimedia recording, employee evaluation of call handling capabilities through automated feedback, multi-site routing, and voice,,
TelecommutingSites that depict working remotely. Employees do not need to commute to a central place of work. Examples are remote work, telework, home based jobs,,
TobaccoSites that promote or sell tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, and,,
Trading & InvestingSites assisting in investing, trading, stock, and share,,
TranslationSites that translate from one language to another. Examples are translator site, language translator, translator, and online language,,
TravelSites that provides travel information, guidance, and tips on travel. Also includes sites with information, travel timetable, online bookings, hotels, and other related details on,,
UncategorizedDomains that are yet to be categorized.NULL
UnreachableSites that give errors such as “Network Timeout”, “Taking too long to respond” or “Address Not Found”.NULL
UtilitiesSites that include tips, information and guide to computer utilities, such as disk backup, etc. Examples are disk performance, system utilities, and PC performance,,
WeaponsSite with guns and weapons not used in a violent manner, such as descriptions, sport hunting, gun clubs, or paintball. It also includes other weapons like crossbows, knives, etc. Examples are gun crossbow, knives, and,,
Web AnalyticsWeb analytics sites that measure, collect, analyze, and report web data to understand and optimize web usage. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print or broadcast advertising,,
Web ConferencingWeb conferencing sites is an umbrella term for various types of online collaborative services including web seminars, webcasts, and peer-level web,,
Web DesignWeb design sites encompass many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites. The different areas of web design include web graphic design, interface design, authoring, including standardized code and proprietary software, user experience design, and search engine,,
Web Hosting, ISP & TelcoWeb hosting and blog hosting sites, and also Internet Service Providers (ISPs), and telecommunications (phone) companies. Examples are ISP, internet access, and cable,,
Web Proxies/AnonymizersWeb proxies and anonymizers are services that allow users to hide their identity, IP address and location when they browse the web. Unlike apps in other categories, which might have a justification for being used, proxies and anonymizers pose a security and legal risk to the organization and should be blocked. Netskope Cloud Confidence Index (CCI) does not apply to these,,
WebmailWebmail (or web-based email) isites are any email clients implemented as a web application running on a web server. Enables users to send and/or receive email through a web accessible email,,
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